Categories EUROPETravel

The Abbey of Valmagne de Villeveyrac

In 1139, Raymond Trencavel, Vicomte de Béziers, founded the Abbey of Valmagne in the commune of Villeveyrac, near Mèze and the pond of Thau in Languedoc Roussillon. From the 12th to the beginning of the 14th century, it was one of the richest Cistercian Abbeys in southern France.

The Abbey of Valmagne is listed as a historical monument and is also one of the oldest vineyards in Languedoc. The family who have been the owner for nine generations has opened the doors to the vineyard cathedral.

The former church was built on the foundations of a first Romanesque church between 1257 and the end of the 14th century. Visitors can discover the Russian oak wounds, over 400 hectolitres of oak found on the lower sides of the central nave. It consists of a seven-span main nave, bordered by two collateral. In the cloister is the sacristy, the “Capitular Room” also known as “Chapter Room”, the hall, the refectory and the fountain-washbasin.

The Abbey of Valmagne has mainly Gothic architecture and its foundations are Romanes. Basil plane, vaulted in rib cross, its dimensions are equal to the large Gothic cathedrals with 83 meters long and 24.50 meters high in the nave, up to 25 meters high in the transept. The latter gives way to the choir, with almond pillars, classic of Gothic architecture; Finally, the ambulatory closes the choir with nine radiant chapels.

The cloister in the northern gallery

The cloister consists of four covered galleries opening onto a garden. Each area serves all the essential parts of the monastery.

The North “Spiritu” gallery adjacent to the church wall is often called the “Mandatum Gallery or “Collations Gallery”, the monks sometimes came to listen to a holy reading, snacks and recite the Complies Office after the evening meal.

The cloister in the east gallery

The east gallery “Anima” fulfills a high spiritual function by serving: the armarium, the sacristy, the capitular room, the hall and the scriptorium. It is also the oldest part of the abbey, the decorations are made of saw teeth and the vaults in the cradle, typical elements of Romanesque architecture.

The Cloister in the South Gallery

In this gallery you will find the location of the former heater as well as the latrines. A little further away is the former refectory converted into a lounge in the 19th century. Opposite the refectory is the fountain.
The latter is surrounded by an octagonal fence topped with an open dome. The vine that climbs along the dome at more than 180 years old; she resisted phylloxera. The Fountain washbasin is a rare place: there are only two lavatory fountains left in France, Thoronet Abbey and Valmagne Abbey.

The Abbaye de Valmagne is surrounded by gardens and a “farm hostel” restaurant.


“Castles in Spain”: unfeasible projects

“Building castles in Spain”! That means having unfeasible projects.

For Spain is considered to have few castles, which in the 15th century would have deprived the Moors of the possibility of taking refuge in a residence that would guarantee their safe retirement when the Christian kingdoms took over the Peninsula.

However, in Aragon, a former kingdom and the current autonomous community of Spain, you can see many of them, including two very impressive ones, in Loarre and Uncastillo.

Loarre Abbey Castle is one of the best preserved Roman fortresses in Europe, considered the oldest Roman-style castle in Spain.

In the 11th century. Sancho Ramírez, king of Aragon and Navarre, had this inextricable fortress built at an altitude of 1070 m and set up a monastery there.

As you approach this impressive eagle’s nest, you will be struck by the beauty and tranquility of the site. Once you have crossed the fortifications flanked by round towers, you enter the castle through a majestic vaulted staircase leading to a Romanesque church and, through a maze of passageways, you arrive at a massive dungeon from which you can discover a huge panorama of the Ebro Depression.

Huge reservoirs collected 80,000 liters of rainwater.
Forgetfuls were used as a pantry by the monks, then as a prison by the nobles who then took possession of the castle.

Loarre is the finest example of the Spanish fortifications, representing one of the best specimens of military and civil architecture in Europe and was declared a cultural heritage and national monument in 1906.

In Uncastillo, the fortress was also built in the 11th century, but by the Muslims in order to defend their borders and control Christian expansion.

The Iberian peninsula was then, since 711, under Muslim domination and was called Al-Andalus until the fall of Granada in Andalusia in 1492.

Two large square towers, two wall walls uniqueness at a time when the castles only have one. We walked into the towers on the first floor through a rope ladder. In the 14th century, fireplaces improve comfort and a Gothic Palace is added. A prosperous city will expand around the fortress, which will, however, experience periods of incessant wars throughout the Middle Ages.

The Spanish builders have successfully carried out their architectural projects!


MARAIS: the history of authentic architecture and buildings classified as historical monuments

The district’s reputation and its dynamism come in particular from the fact that it was the first place in Paris and the district is also internationally known by history enthusiasts.

The Marais is one of the city’s trendiest districts, with a popular atmosphere and authentic architecture. Visiting the Marais is a must for tourists wanting to discover the Monuments, the Museums to visit, the numerous private hotels from the Renaissance period, almost all entirely preserved, as well as for its museums, such as the Carnavalet Museum, which traces the history of the city, along the centuries through works of art but also souvenirs and objects from the great periods of the capital.

Nearly 141 buildings classified as historical monuments such as the Place des Vosges, where many artists and politicians live, “Le Marais” is also an emblematic artistic place where you can find a multitude of art galleries and museums dedicated to such as the National Museum of Picasso.

A few steps away, we continue our path through the Place des Vosges and the collections of works by French and European artists of the Galerie du Marais, between the Museum of Art and History of Judaism (71 rue du temple) and the National Picasso Museum (5 rue de Thorigny) as well as the Maison de Victor Hugo and other galleries.

After the Seine had taken the course we know it today, the arm that passed to the north, at the foot of the hills of Belleville and Montmartre, fought and formed a swamp belt, these were crossed, very early on, by a few major lines of communication in the district, the present rue St Martin and rue St Antoine appeared from the Roman period.

Emperor Charles le Chauve gave the abbey of Ste Opportune the marshes that it put on grassland before alienating part of it into plowing land in 879.
These lands were transformed into “marshes”, a Parisian word used for vegetable and aromatic crops, at the end of the Middle Ages, many of these “marshes” were planted with fruit trees.
Religious establishments, including these, were responsible for this conquest of the marshes and their settlement: St Martin des Champs and the house of the Temple.

Around 1360, the future Charles V, still a dolphin, began to build a new enclosure encompassing a territory larger than the previous one.
The Marais district is thus annexed to the city and received its consecration when Charles V, fleeing his palace (now the Palais de Justice) following riots, prefers the St Paul hotel, located between St Antoine street and the quay, his son Charles VI, to which the doctors advise to entertain, in fact the house of the “Happy Fights”.

In the 18th Century, the royal square (now Place des Vosges), created on the order of Henry IV, became the heart of the Marais, becoming a place of elegance and festivities. It was through her that princes and ambassadors who made their solemn entrances to Paris used to pass to be admired.

The great lords and courtiers build splendid houses around them decorated by the best artists of the Great Century.
At the Marais, the style of the French-style private mansion was developed at the time, a classic and discreet building between courtyard and garden sheltered from the street and its inconveniences, and the precious, philosophers and libertines held brilliant lounges. Musicians and speakers make the vaults of St Paul and St Gervais sound.

The capture of the Bastille marks the end of the residential Marais.
Hotels were often abandoned, sold or seized; their owners emigrated to the provinces or outside the kingdom, some arrested, died under the guillotine.

All walks of life, until the beginning of the 20th century, showed an equal flippancy towards this unfortunate neighborhood.
Only the need to set up administrations allowed the rescue of certain monuments that suffered from their new assignments ( Hotels de Soubise , Rohan , Carnavalet , Le Peletier ).

The Old Paris commission, created in 1897, advised the city on the choice of monuments to keep. The latter, assisted by the state, was able to buy hotels to allocate them to a destination worthy of their past ( Aubert de Fontenay hotel called “Salé” today, Picasso museum ).
In 1962, under the leadership of André Malraux, the “Saved neighborhood” law grants grants to restore private hotels. This news brought a social transformation to the neighborhood: the craftsmen have gone away with a better environment.

Today, some accuse the Marais of having lost its popular life and of being a ‘museum district’ visited by tourists.

So the Marsh has gradually returned from the beginning of the 20th century to its lustre, its 17th and 18th century greatness, which the Parisians, it seems, had forgotten too quickly after the Revolution.

Categories TravelWORLD

Indonesia, country in the 13,466 islands

The Republic of Indonesia is the largest archipelago of the world with 13,466 islands of which volcanic thousands and 922 inhabited.

With a population estimated at 265 million people, it is the 4th country more populated in the gathering world of the hundreds of ethnos groups with their own cultures, languages and religions whose principal one is Islam, which puts this country in the forefront of the Moslem states for the number of believers.  Read the large island but also most populated is Java which shelters the capital, Jakarta but also Yogyakarta, known by its puppets and its musical festival of gamelan. Indonesian, a form the Malayan one, was selected like language of the country.

If it is known for its beautiful landscapes and tourist sites and its temples like Borobudur and Prambanan, two sites classified with the world heritage of UNESCO located on the island of Java, its volcanos like Kawah Ijen with Java, its green crater, its acid lake and its non luminous flames, the country puffs out its throat of a large biodiversity with the dragons of Komodo, the orangsoutans, the tigers and the elephants, unfortunately in the process of disappearance. Moreover, one does not count the music festivals and of dance of which Lelong and Barong. Lelong Keraton is a ballet dancing which takes as a starting point an idyll of the 18th century. The Barong is a creature magic, semi dog, semi lion, nice, mischievous, which likes to have fun with monkeys. It is the image of the Good. Two dancers animate this extremely popular character.

Located in SouthEast Asia, Indonesia was an area of exchanges between India and China in the first centuries before J.C. From the 7th century, the exchanges move towards Sumatra then Java thanks to rice growing. It is at that time that the large monuments are built. The strait of Malacca becomes a major maritime crossroads following the decline of the Silk route. The road of spices opens at the 17th century for Europeans, Portuguese and Dutch. With close the exploitation of the Island of Java at the 19th century, the national movement is born the next century. On August 17th 1945, Soekarno   and Mohammad Hatta proclaim the independence of Indonesia Dutchwomen after the Japanese occupation of the Indies Dutchwomen between 1942 and dates it from independence. Nevertheless, she will be fully recognized internationally only in December 1949; Lesannées 1950 are marked by many separatist movements. Following the events of 196566, the Soeharto general comes to power. He resigns in 1998, which makes it possible the country to start the beginning of a process of democratisation.

In Indonesia, one counts many bank holidays due to religious diversity (Moslem, hindouist, Buddhist or Christian woman), cultural and with the respect of the habits. For all, the Festival of Independence takes place on August 17th, marked by official ceremonies and popular holidays.

Various religious holidays are celebrated by each community concerned. The country being mainly Moslem, the Ramadan is followed in practically all the country. The most important dates correspond at the end of the Ramadan (Idul Fitri), the festival of the sacrifice (Idul Adha), the Moslem new year (Muharram) and the birth of Mahomet (Maulud).

The other communities have the opportunity of being delighted at the time of great celebrations the such Chinese new year (Imlek) for the Chinese, the day of silence (Nyepi) among Hindus, the day of the awakening of Buddha (Waisak) and the day of its birth (Waicak) at the Buddhists, Christmas, the Rise and Easter among Christians or the festival of Metal, special day for the Balineses who celebrate Tumpek Landep in tribute to Sang Hyang Pasupati Dieu D ` heritage. This festival proceeds every 210 days of the Balinese calendar and is always Saturday. It celebrates nowadays, all that is done starting from metal of which cars.

On the Island of Java, the Ballet of Ramayana, celebrates it epopee hindouist proceeds in summer with Prambanan, while on October 7th, the birthday of Yogykarta is the occasion to discover the cultural heritage thanks to visits, exhibitions, shows, etc

In Borneo, the Erau festival on the island of Kalimantan takes place on September 24th when tournaments of traditional sports and a procession proceed where a giant dragon is thrown in the river.

In Bali, Kuta Karnival, festival of sliding sports (surfing, funboard, skateboard, kitesurf, kite), traditional dances and concerts is held in Kuta. It is also the occasion to discover the local specialties. March is one month of rejoicings in Bali since many festivals proceed there like:

Galungan, great popular holiday celebrated in family every 210 days for the creation of the world and victory of Dharma over Adharma. After 10 days one celebrates Kuningan, a continuity of the festival of Galungan.

it yoga and the music spiritual is with the honor within a framework Zen of Bali Spirit Festival in Purnati Center for the Arts of Batuan, located at 10 minutes of Ubud.

It Ngembak Geni, a continuity of the festivities of Nyepi, Balinese new year or day of silence. After this period during which they tried to move away the bad rustled spirit without TV nor other, the families meet around a great feast organized around traditional gastronomical specialities.

It Festival of Jazz de Jakarta lasts 3 days in March during which places in the concerts with national and international singers in clubs have, shopping centres, arts centres and bar.

The celebration of the birth of Buddha (Waicak) is celebrated in April May. and the Festival of Arts of Bali lasts all June, it is held in Denpasar and begin with a great ceremony joining together at the time of a parade, 300 dancers worn traditional clothes. One attends to with it exhibitions, musical entertainments, shows of music, ballets, representations of theatre, processions of traditional costumes, etc Of other festivals take place from September to December.

Categories CULTURETravelWORLD

Gironde: Par-not-par, the enigma of the disappearance of Neandertal and their place of life preserved, the scientific version of Christian Tréguier

Do you know the prehistoric cave of ParnotPar, near to Blaye? Discrete, one of oldest of the world, it testifies to the first artistic steps of humanity. The drawings that our remote ancestors and their preserved place of life left there, insufflate an incredible emotion.

Discovered at the end of the nineteenth century by François Daleau in 1881, the cave of ParnotPar is located at the exit of PrignacandMarcamps, one of the oldest prehistoric places with traces of intimacy of our remote ancestors.

The Man of Néandertal, or Neanderthal man, is an extinct species of the Gay kind, which lived in Europe, in the Middle East and in Central Asia, until approximately 30,000 years before our era, while going back to approximately 450,000 years. This ancestor shares with Homo sapiens an ancestor common going up to approximately 660,000 years. The most former recognized fossil Neanderthal men as such are those of Sima of los Huesos, gone back to 430,000 years.

Since its discovery in 1856, its statute varied: a time considered as a subspecies of Homo sapiens and named Homo sapiens neanderthalensis consequently, he is regarded today as a species except for whole named Gay neanderthalensis.

First identified fossil man, contemporary of Homo sapiens, the Man of Néandertal suffered a long time from negative judgments compared to the modern Man. Progress of the prehistoric archeology since years 1960 has in fact revealed mankind of a certain cultural development. It controlled various techniques advanced like joining with the pitch of birch, and certain fossil vestiges gone back to less than 70,000 years are regarded as burials testifying to funerary rites.

Many points still remain to be elucidated, like its precise ascent as well as the date and the conditions of its extinction after more than 400,000 years of existence. The last known Neanderthal vestiges fossil or archaeological are gone back to less than 30,000 years, in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in the Crimea, and in the Caucasus. However, these datings remain discussed within the scientific community.

It is what Christian Tréguier tries to discover through a detailed and ludic analysis which carries us in the middle of a forgotten world, in the vestiges of our common past.

While letting express the walls engraved by our ancestors, let us try to understand what was the life of Sapiens, Néanderthal and the animals which populated these regions then.

Christian Tréguier, request officially that this test which gives the answer to the enigma of the disappearance of Neandertal is considered following the example of a report of thesis on work and can be worth to him to be invited to in 2019 support its thesis in front of a jury.

Under a timbered hillock, have been preserved for more than 30,000 years of engravings of animals whose horse with turned over head, very first collecting of the movement in Article Women and men of prehistory, Neandertal like Homo sapiens, lived there. Traces of its regular occupation remain, a source having dug a basin in the cave.

Christian Tréguier, impassioned by prehistoric art thinks of having updated of interpretations of works of a cave in the Gironde.

Christian Tréguier, this technician is impassioned since always by parietal art, in a work which it defines as a memory of thesis, it explains his research and lucky finds on the cave of ParnotPar, located at PrignacandMarcamps, in the Gironde.
Its thesis, it would wish to support it in front of a jury in 2019. Without university course in this field, here which poses problem somewhat, but a question arises: how does one come from there to write a book on such a subject? I discovered a Neanderthal man.

First Saturday of March 2009, comfortably sitted in my armchair, I divided into sheets a review which I appreciate much for the quality of his articles. I want to speak about the Archéologia review. This day, it was number 451.

As from this moment, is born a great interest for the place; it will not have of cease to be interested in the cave of ParnotPar, and a sensational discovery which it has the chance to make directly is born.

On page 12, was spread out full page, a stereotype taken by Mister and Mrs Delluc, both eminent prehistorians who me spontaneously and gracefully yielded the rights of it. This photography shows us the emblematic engraving of this site: this famous Agnus dei A horse called thus by its discoverer François Daleau, the archaeologist who discovered the site and excavated it meticulously since 1881. It found to him some similarities with the paschal lamb which decorates one of the capitals of a church close to the site.

If he hitherto did not have any doubt as for his readings about parietal art, it is not any more the case. He wonders, inter alia things, about one of the representations of the cave: a horse.
I have doubt because the horse is badly read. There exists, but its head is not there. I am likely to know the horses, it is for that that challenged me. If not, I would have accepted, like everyone.
During nine years, he gets caught up and carries out, of at his place, assiduous research. Not being able to carry out research on site, it rests on two photographs given by Brigitte and Gilles Delluc, archaeologists. These stereotypes, it colourizes them to underline the elements which it sees and to support its speech.
It finds a dozen interpretations then that it puts in writing. Perhaps I have the eye, I do not know.

I realized in November 2009 that my interpretation was erroneous. The meticulous personal study that I made of this engraving changed this fisherman into valorous warrior of the very first wave of modern men who broke unrelentingly on this Neanderthal territory. This hero, is represented accompanied by several comrades themselves here carrying trophies posed on their coverchief This engraving describes us one particularly horrible moment: that where these sanguinary killers, finally removed from unfavourable defense, located the hidingplace of the population without defense and ruent the weapon held up, straight on the women, children and old men Neanderthal to massacre them! Sordid detail: this unhappy population had taken refuge all at the bottom of a cavity, at the placeeven which was used to him as cemetery. The killers walk briskly in the middle of the skeletons.

Here the first head trophy of the garland of victory of the principal hero of engraving whom I discovered with ParnotPar, cave decorated with the Gironde, France. Suspended on the right shoulder of the hero of engraving, it is visible of right profile. The right ear seems missing. With ParnotPar in the Gironde, France, four Neanderthal heads attached by hair on the garland of victory of the frightening hero of superb and horrible engraving which openly acknowledges the massacre of the clan of ParnotPar.

Another interesting question could be posed: Did each tribe fight only the detested enemy who was in limit of his territory?

I highlighted the interesting layouts of them. You thus see the killer/hero in action. Two stuffed heads decorate its coverchief. There could be one or two others of them well. (in this cave, another warlike scene shows a Sapiens warrior cutting the throat of a Sapiens sentinel. The killer carries three stuffed heads posed plays against cheek above his head. Its victim carries only one pretty hairstyle of feathers falling down in range on the left side very interesting detail: these works are coded! They are directed, one with 90°, (case of the massacre of the Neanderthal clan), the other, case of the elimination of the Sapiens sentinel, with 180° of the normal. These works were thus booked with the sight of the warlike elite of the clan.

Christian Tréguier was challenged by one of engravings of the cave of ParnotPar, it published a novel: The appalling consent with the Persée editions, in the collection archives of time. Its history is base around an engraving, carried out some 35,000 years ago, which it discovered in 2009, by reading a review of archaeology number 451.

It is disproportionate. The neck is too long, the back legs step good, the head is more that of a tricératops that of a horse. That challenged me.

While turning the photograph of engraving, it sees a man there. From there, he imagines the account of the life of Taram, his life, his huntings, his wars.

If its hero is called Taram, it is in reference to Taramis, the god of the war of the Celts. In his book, Christian Tréguier romanticizes the life of the various characters of the clan and evokes the massacre of the Néandartaliens last.

Christian Tréguier, gives his hero, the lifestyle, the habits, the armament of the time, clothing, the way of behaving with the enemies. The book is hard, the author considers who justifies this hardness by stressing that it is the war.

First and the last, just north of the estuary of the Gironde appeared at editions Amalthée and the historical novel entitled the appalling consent published at Persée, an answer to the enigma of the disappearance of Neandertal from which is born a great interest for the place. This test gives to ParnotPar a good dozen absolutely splendid works, on the life, its huntings, its wars, the massacre of the Néandartaliens last, discovered in the sight of the author in his scientific version.

PHOTO: Brigitte et Gilles Delluc

PHOTO: Brigitte et Gilles Delluc


The Picos de Europa

The Picos de Europa, a name that appeals!

In the north of Spain, dominating the Gulf of Lion and the Costa Verde, rise the Picos de Europa, a high but small scale, culminating at 2648m at the Torre de Cerredo.

They call themselves that because they used to be the first visible land on the horizon for seamen who were sailing at sight.

Arriving from the west on the Atlantic, returning from whaling, tuna or cod from Newfoundland, they could see this formidable coastal massif that guided them to the ports of Cantabria.

The Ebro, the most powerful of the rivers of Spain, more than 900km long, takes its source there to throw itself in the Mediterranean, in Catalonia, by an immense delta which advances deeply at sea and irrigates paddy fields.

Several peaks exceed 2500m, deep gorges and impressive parades cross the Picos de Europa.

Breeding territory – there is a “Spanish roquefort” – hunting reserve, a mining area, it is also an important tourist site with the Parade of Hermida, the longest in Spain, which leads to a circus grandiose the Fuente Dé, with a cable car that leads 750m higher to 1834m.

Beautiful villages, like Potes, enjoying a Mediterranean climate with lush vegetation, as well as renowned gastronomy, add to the attractions of this region.

And the sea is close by with the beautiful sandy beaches of the Costa Verde, wild coast, cut by deep rias and isolated coves, of incredible beauty with the intense green of nature allied to the blue of the sea.



Targu Jiu: an ecological, cultural and tourist city

For more than 10 years, the town of Targu jiu in Romania, has become a true natural, ecological industry and green spaces.

The technology of the ecological system was put at profit in 2016 by the separation of household wastes. As for green spaces, they became a true work of nature, transforming each centimetre of ground by planting trees and flowers to reduce pollution in the city.

Today, by seeing the city, you think that you are in a forest living in an euphoric space, a true corner of paradise where pollution decreased by 40% in 2017, 48% in 2016 and 58% in 2010.

So in 2000, Targu Jiu underwent a nightmare because of pollution where industry transformed all the last particles of air into carbon dioxide, today all is transformed into water and air ata rate going up to 60 percent, remains still the pollution of the inhabitants, where household wastes have their place to be separate and jetés in the places indicated during more than 2 years.

However it remains still much of aftereffects which deserve criticism, as public transport where one tests the renewal of the vehicles, with new buses of last generation, which will take at least a year to have a reduction of pollution up to 8%, against 18% today.

The activities of cleansing of deputy management (waste disposal put in discharge and of collection of ecological waste and transport) were followed uninterrupted répondantt to the parameters of performance dealt with by the operators.
Thus, it was noted that the operator of health in conformity and is approved for the graphic lifting of public waste, maintaining the platforms of waste adapted, of the containers of clean and regular washing of 1.1 m used.

With regard to the environmental activity street deposit career, storage is the first cell, whose plenitude is of approximately. 92%.

Owner of the ecological discharge, SC POLARIS ENVIRONMENT SRL finished the completion of the work for the realization of the second cells so that there are no gaps in the supply of the capacity of waste disposal of launching of the procedures for the closing of the first cell.

The total quantity of waste deposited in the ecological store of the street Carierei in 2017 was of 28 672.45 tons of waste.
Like insecticidal work, that was carried out in four stages (three stages by planes, a stage on the ground of pulverization), which began May 2017.
The total expenditure in 2017 for the cleansing rose with 1,844 494.54 euros.

The city takes its name of the Jiu river. In antiquity, there was the village of Dacian to the site of the city of now surrounded by forests. After the Roman conquests of Oltenia (101102), military units were posted around the roads which connected various important routes then. During the digging of Târgu Jiu the railroad of Rovinari, Roman mosaics, coins, ceramics and bricks were found in the part of the southeast of the city. These ancient testimonies support the idea that Târgu Jiu was a commercial city (a vicus) according to the rule of the Empire Romain
. A very important route connects the Danube to Transylvania via the city. Historians believe that part of the Roman army under the direction of Trajan remained and has owes its past in the real site of the city.

Going back to 1406, Targu Jiu has an undeniable history and a rich culture that I invite you to know. Of the monumental unit carried out by the large sculptor Constantin Brancusi, written history of the sword of Tudor Vladimirescu, or the history written with the gun Ecaterina Teodoroiu Targu Jiu has to offer much.

Preajba Bike Fest was held from August 4th to August 6th in Preajba, an event dedicated to the promotion of tourism of adventure and beyond. The second edition of Targu Jiu Fair of the bicycle was aligned with the beginning of the competition: 31 amateurs of VTT contributed on a course of a distance of 32 kilometers and a total difference in level of 300 meters. Among the competitors appeared of the cyclists of the county of Gorj and the counties. Besides the competition of bicycle of mountain, participants in the event Targu Jiu ontn be pleased ds to attend concerts of live music.

The folk music festival and ballade Poarta Sărutului, in August,
try to gather the great names of the Rumanian folklore and also gives a chance to affirm the young talents. The festival is organized by People S Art School, with the support of the town council and the town hall of Târgu Jiu, and other institutions.

During one week from August 18th to August 25th, Târgu Jiul was again celebrates some through the organization of the festival of beer on the island. The festival of beer began Monday and closed down after one week, with the participation of thousands of townsmen.
Seven days of pleasure and good will, the Monday to Sunday, the tragujians have the possibility of leaving side the daily concern and of entering the atmosphere of vacancies. The festival was sponsored by two wellknown companies, without the local budget being affected with this event. The inhabitants of our city could attend a folk show and groups: Pachanga, Corina, Mandinga and Daggu project.

The international festival of folklore took place, organized from August 20th to August 24th by County Council and the Professional Artistic Unit Doina Gorjului, with the support of the Local Council and the Town hall of Târgu Jiu, as well as other institutions. Folk whole of 10 European countries was invited to take part. The goal of this festival is to promote the town of Târgu Jiu and the county of Gorj by preserving the places of our old national and international traditions.

In August also, in collaboration with the town hall of Târgu Jiu, the departmental center of safeguarding and promotion of the traditional culture organized the artisanal fair of the Rumanian people. The townsmen could admire during several days of the Rumanian and foreign objects popular in all the corners of the country, this year also has are artists of Serbia, Bulgaria and Moldova,

The table of silence, beside the column without end and of the door of the kiss, is one of the three monumental sculptures of the monumental whole of Târgu Jiu of the Rumanian sculptor Constantin Brancusi. Also known under the name of Monumental Whole of TârguJiu, the unit is a homage to the heroes fallen during the First World War. The three monumental sculptural components, the table of silence, the door of the kiss and the column without end, are laid out on the same axis, are directed of west in is, with an overall length of 1,275 Mr.




The Loire, “the only big wild river” in Europe

Considered by Balzac as “the most beautiful sky in the world above our heads”, the Loire abounds with sumptuous landscapes and very rich natural environments throughout its 1,012 kilometers.

Longest river in France, it has its source at Mount Gerbier-de-Jonc in Ardèche and joins the Atlantic Ocean.

Despite several dams and important lateral protections against floods, despite the fact that, very early, it has experienced developments to promote navigation and protect the riparian populations of its legendary floods, the Loire remains a river little developed, considered the “only big wild river” in Europe.

There is only one lock on the course of the Loire.
The latest heavy development projects were abandoned in the early 1990s with the mobilization of environmental protection associations followed by the adoption in January 1994 by the Plan Loire state.

The entire river has been listed as a site of Community importance for the European Natura 2000 network under the two European directives “Birds” and “Habitats”, for the protection of its wild fauna and flora, its biodiversity, its its ecosystems as well as places of passage for migratory species.

In April, the Loire, hosts a large colony of birds with high heritage value: terns, trans-Saharan migratory birds, egrets, gray herons, the knight, the little plover.

There is also otter, salmon, pearl mussel.
Its main tributary, the Allier, is still beautifully preserved with a single dam.



The paradisiac Garden of Kolymbetra in the Valley of the Temples in Sicily

For having admired the majestic Greek temples of Agrigente, celebrated by the philosopher Empédocle and the Pindare poet, it is necessary to be armed with courage to discover the Garden of Kolymbetra.

One reaches that point while following the formidable wall built on the peak of the hill, until the end of the site.
At the origin, it was an immense basin of 5ha dug by the Carthaginian prisoners in order to be used as fish pond with fishes for the Greek city.

It was and is always fed, 2500 years after, by a small torrent bordered of reeds, willows, tamarisk, euphorbiums and palm trees dwarf.
The place was then transformed into orchard, becoming a garden of the delights.
According to the Arab culture, the garden represents at the same time the wealth of the fruits and the beauty of the luxuriance.

With 19th and 20th century, the Garden lives one period of great splendour, becoming one of the destinations of the Large Turn, travels of aristocratic education carried out by young people of the more upper classes of the company European and intended to perfect their education.

In 1980, the garden was given up for lack of water provision.
It is that the FAI, Funds for the Italian Environment, gave again its old splendour to him by restoring the ancient system of water conveyance, to in 1999 reopen it with the public in 2001.

The FAI is a private Foundation which, since 1975, contributes to protection, the conservation and the development of the heritage artistic, natural and landscape Italian.

Today, it is an oasis invaded of orange trees, lemon trees, mandarin trees, almond trees, fig trees, pistachio trees, quince trees, pomegranates, banana trees, limettiers, bergamot trees, mulberry trees, apple trees, pear trees,

One comes there to walk there to the calm only the song of the birds breaks the silence of the place to smell the perfume of the flowers, to read or taste the jam prepared with the fruits of the garden.

During all of summer, it is the seat of exhibitions, receptions, musical and gastronomical events.




Agrigente and the Valley of the Temples

Located on the southernmost dimension of Sicily, Agrigente is famous for its Valley of the Temples. In front century J.C it was the 4th city of the world known with 200,000 inhabitants thanks to its natural wealths, the wheat, oil, the wine, the horses.

The Valley of the Temples gathers about ten Greek temples built with the 6è and 5è centuries av.J.C. Since 1997, the unit is registered with the World heritage of UNESCO. The invasions, plunderings, the earthquakes, the pure and simple abandonment, caused the collapse of the majority of the temples. Only one, the Temple of the Harmony was saved. Its transformation with the 6è century explains its state of remarkable conservation.

As for the Parthenon of Athens, its architecture is an optical good example of correction. The columns are thinned upwards, they are slightly tilted towards the center, they present a bulge to the 2/3 the height, all that to give the impression of perfect verticals.

If one follows the impressive wall of enclosure dug of silos and of cisterns at the time Hellenistic, reused like necropolis by the Byzantines, one arrives at a paradisiac garden, prone of our next article in Sicily.